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Urban Sustainability and Governance: New Challenges in Nordic-Baltic Housing Policies
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Editors: Arild Holt-Jensen (Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Bergen, Bergen, Norway) Eric Pollock (Helsinki Metropolia Univ. of Applied Sciences, Finland)
Book Description:
Urban sustainability and governance in relation to housing trends and policies is the focus of this book written by leading Nordic and Baltic housing researchers. The empricial examples are from the Baltic transition economies and the Nordic welfare states. For a number of reasons it is, however, of interest for researchers outside this region. Firstly, the global challenges of sustainable development and planning, presented in the theorectical section, are clarified and given a deeper practical meaning through the empirical chapters. The contrasts between the post-solicalist Baltic states and the social-democrat Nordic countries are in this context of special value. Secondly, the general challenges facing the post-socialist states are demonstrated in the housing development and policies evolving since 1991, as these integrate both social, economic and environmental issues. Thirdly, the book illustrates how path dependencies and former legacies influence present developments, which, contrary to common beliefs, differ between the 5 Nordic and the 3 Baltic states.

It is crucial reading for students and actors in planning and housing in the Baltic and Nordic states. The Nordic countries developed its post- WWII housing and welfare policies in the framework of a social-democrat egalitarian spirit resulting in co-ops dominating much of the scene in Norway, municipal housing companies in Sweden, nonprofit local housing associations in Denmark and housing with special state loans in Finland. In the same period Soviet state-socialist intentions formed the basis of large-scale uniform housing estates providing standard housing for the masses in the Baltic states. Privatisation in the east and increasing market liberalisation in the west have created new social cleavages on the housing scene. There are striking policy differences between the Nordic and Baltic states, but also smiliarities, both before the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union, and in recent trends and challenges.

The book provides a cruial common ground for reciporcal learning in the field of housing and planning.

Contributors in addition to editors:
Göran Cars, Dept. of Urban Planning & Environment, Royal Inst. of Applied Sciences,Sweden;
Evelyn Dyb, Norwegian Institute for Social and Regional Research, Oslo, Norway
Anna Julegina, E.A.S. Development consultancy, Tallinn, Estonia
Arturas Kaklauskas, Dept. of Construction Economics and Property Management, Vilnius Gediminas Tech. Univ., Vilnius, Lithuania
Dovile Krupickaité, Faculty of Natural science, Vilnius Univ., Vilnius, Lithuania
Natalija Lepkova, Dept. of Construction Economics and Property Management, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius, Lithuania
Roode Liias, Tallinn Univ. of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia
Lina Martinson, Swedish National Audit Office, SE Stockhom, Sweden;
Aisté Mickaityté, Vilnius Gediminas Technical Univ. Vilnius, Lithuania
Nicky Morrison Department of Land Economy, Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge;UK
Liis Ojamäe, Inst. of International and Social Studies, Tallinn University, Estonia
Katrin Paadam, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Tallinn Univ. of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia
Garri Raagmaa, Dir. of the Univ. of Tartu Pärnu College, Pärnu, Estonia
Harald Standl, Bamberg Univ., Bamberg, Germany
Eli Støa, Faculty of Architecture and Fine Arts, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway;
Sandra Treija, Faculty of Architecture and Planning, Riga Technical Univ. Riga, Latvia
Hedvig Vestergaard, Danish Building Research Inst., Aalborg Univ. Hørsholm, Denmark

Table of Contents:
PREFACE: (Arild Holt-Jensen and Eric Pollock)

Introduction: Northern Europe - between the East and West;pp. 1-11 (Arild Holt-Jensen, and Nicky Morrison)

1. Housing policies, path dependencies and present challenges;pp. 13-29
( Anna Julegina, Göran Cars and Arild Holt-Jensen)
1.1. Introduction: the urban future
1.2. The housing challenges
1.3. Applied theory
1.4. Phases of housing policy evolution in the Nordic and the Baltic countries
1.5. Challenges caused by globalisation and economic restructuring

2. Housing in the sustainable city;pp. 31-48
(Eli Støa)
2.1. Sustainability – clarifying the concepts
2.2. Housing in the sustainable city
2.3. Main challenges in the housing sector – and the need for an integrated approach
2.4. Conlusion

Box 1. Segregation Versus Social Mix;pp. 49-52
(Arild Holt-Jensen

3. Governance and social capital as tools for neighbourhood regeneration;pp. 53-77
(Lina Martinson and Göran Cars)
3.1. What is governance?
3.2. What is social capital?
3.3. Actions for social capital in governance
3.5. Obstacles to governance
3.6. Effective neighbourhood governance
3.7. Value-creation
3.8. Concluding discussion

4. Planning theories and development practices: past dependencies contra new ideology: Impact of planning for sustainable housing development;pp. 79-99
(Garri Raagmaa)
4.1. Introduction
4.2.Development and replacement of planning paradigms
4.3. Regional planning and housing development during state socialism
4.4. Devolution and evolution of planning after socialism
4.5. Housing development and impact of planning – Estonian case
4.6. Conclusion. The planning cultures of Soviet and post-soviet pragmatism

The Nordic countries – introduction;pp. 101-106
(Arild Holt-Jensen and Goran Cars)

5. Housing and social cohesion, national considerations - Sweden;pp. 107-117
(Göran Cars)
5.1. National presentation
5.2. Local policies to promote social cohesion – Stockholm
5.3. Social cohesion – the case of Tensta

6. The market oriented and privatised housing culture in Norway;pp. 119-131
(Arild Holt-Jensen,)
6.1. National presentation
6.2. Housing policies in Bergen
6.3. The Løvstakken case
6.4. The Fjell neighbourhood in Drammen

7. Housing and social cohesion in densely settled Denmark;pp. 133-148 (Hedvig Vestergaard)
7.1. National background
7.2. The Danish case study
7.3. Conclusions: make space for the individual in the collective

8. Forest suburbs in Finland;pp. 149-163
(Eric Pollock)
8.1. National background
8.2. The present Finnish housing policy
8.3. Housing markets
8.4. Housing finance and production
8.5. The Kontula neighbourhood enchantment project
8.6. Conclusions

Box 2. Homelessness in Nordic and Baltic Countries;pp. 165-169
(Evelyn Dyb)

Countries in Transition - The Baltic countries – Introduction;pp. 171-177
(Katrin Paadam)

9. Residential policy challenges in Estonia;pp. 179-195
(Katrin Paadam)
9.1. National presentation
9.2. Combining institutional and individual efforts (Katrin Paadam)
9.3. Regeneration of Mustamäe (Liis Ojamäe, Katrin Paadam and Roode Liias)

10. Housing and social cohesion in Latvia;pp. 197-207
(Sandra Treija)
10.1 National presentation
10.2. Policies to promote social cohesion
10.3 Social cohesion – the case of Meziems

11. Housing trends in Lithuania;pp. 209-225
(Natalija Lepkova)
11.1 The national context
11.2 Uzupis – a case of gentrification in a rundown neighbourhood (Aisté Mickaityté, Harald Standl and Dovile Krupickaité)
11.3 The Romany community in Vilnius (Arturas Kaklauskas)

Box 3. Ghettos and Enclaves as including and excluding Neighbourhoods);pp. 227-229
(Arturas Kaklauskas and Arild Holt-Jensen)

Box 4. Urban Sprawl: A Threat to Urban Sustainability? The case of Tallinn;pp. 231-239
(Anna Julegina)

12. The Nordic –Baltic housing policies seen in a broader international perspective;pp. 241-250
(Nicky Morrison, Arild Holt-Jensen and Anna Julegina)
12.1. Urban and housing policies in the Nordic countries
12.2. Urban and housing policies in the Baltic countries
12.3. Conclusion

Appendix 1: The countries in brief;pp. 251-303
(Katrin Paadam and Arild Holt-Jensen,Sandra Treija,Natalja Lepkova,Hedvig Vestergaard and Eric Pollock)

Appendix 2: Information and intelligent technologies for neighbourhoods;pp. 305-321
(Arturas Kaklauskas)
Appendix 3: Glossary;pp. 323-349


   Binding: Hardcover
   Pub. Date: 2008, 4th quarter
   Pages: 349 pp.
   ISBN: 978-1-60456-886-8
   Status: AV
Status Code Description
AN Announcing
FM Formatting
PP Page Proofs
FP Final Production
EP Editorial Production
PR At Prepress
AP At Press
AV Available
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Urban Sustainability and Governance: New Challenges in Nordic-Baltic Housing Policies