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Listeria in the Wildlife of Russia (pp. 167-176) $100.00
Authors:  (I. Yegorova, Ju. Selyaninov, V. Fertickov, National Research Institute for Veterinary Virology and Microbiology of Russia (NRIVVaMR), Russian Academy of Agricultural Science (RAAS), Pokrov, Vladimir Region, Russia, and others)
Based on long-term monitoring studies carried out among wild ungulates and aquatic organisms living in woodland and hunting areas and freshwater basins of Russia, we determined a carrier state for both pathogenic and nonpathogenic Listeria species of sika deer, red deer, wild boar, as well as herbivorous and carnivorous fish species. Among the eight currently known listeria species, only two ones, namely Listeria innocua and Listeria monocytogenes have been found in hot- and cold-blooded representatives of the fauna, with Listeria innocua being most often isolated from the samples tested. The prevalence rates among aquatic organisms were 0.8% for L. monocytogenes and 5.2% for L. innocua, while in wild cloven-hoofed species the rates were 2.2 to 12% and 1.5 to 29%, respectively. For wild cloven-hoofed animals, listeria in most cases were found in feces, and only in two cases the agent was found in brain and lymph node of a hunted sika deer, and in the liver of a died wild boar. The carriage state levels among cloven-hoofed species significantly depended on the forms of economic activities and compliance with sanitation requirements. Among fish, the carrier state for listeria was determined in both herbivorous and carnivorous fish species. L. monocytogenes was mainly found in bream, carp, white bream and perch, while L. innocua in bream, pike, white bream, rudd, crucian carp and perch. Listeria of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic species were most frequently found in fish skin and gill tissues.
The carried out investigations also indicated that the soil in feeding grounds and rotting plant residues are natural reservoirs for listeria, with the immigration of juvenile fish not checked for listeria carrier state and carcasses of drowned listeria-carrying wildlife being another source of listeria introduction into aquatic fauna of freshwater basins, beside the known ones.
In order to identify phylogenetic relationships among the identified isolates, a pulse-electrophoresis of a restricted chromosomal DNA (REA-PFGE) was carried out. The results of the investigations into genetic variability among the isolates collected from wild cloven-hoofed animals using REA-PFGE revealed a variety of pulse electrotypes, suggesting multiple sources of infection. In freshwater fish populations a circulation of three L. monocytogenes clonal variants was found, with the pulse-electrotype isolates as found in different fish species, caught in the waters of the same river, having 100% coincidence. In addition, the pulse electrotype of a perch isolate was identical to a restriction profile of an isolate from sika deer feces found in the same region. 

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Listeria in the Wildlife of Russia (pp. 167-176)