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The Globalization-AIDS-Poverty Syndrome in Africa pp. 235-256 $100.00
Authors:  (Padraig Carmody, University of Dublin, Ireland, Glen Elder, The University Of Vermont)
Geographically speaking, AIDS the usually fatal result of an HIV infection, is primarily
instantiated in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, which also contains two-thirds of the world’s
cases of HIV infection (See Figure 1). There were more than 2.1 million AIDS deaths there in
2006, more than 70% of the world’s total from complications related to HIV. Put simply,
people live with HIV in most parts of the world but tend to get infected by HIV more often
and die more quickly of AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. A fifteen year old boy in Botswana has
over a 90% chance of dying of AIDS (UNAIDS, 2000 cited in Barnett and Whiteside, 2006).‡
While statistics such as these are well known, what is surprising is that suffering and death on
this scale was foreseen and allowed to develop (for examples of early warnings pertaining to
HIV in sub-Saharan Africa see Seale 1986; Caldwell, Caldwell and Quiggin 1989; Barnett
and Blaikie 1992; the links between migrant labor in sub-Saharan Africa and HIV see
Jochelson et al., 1991; HIV and gender inequality in sub-Saharan Africa see McFadden
1992). More recent responses from international organizations like the World Health
Organization, private foundations like the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and state actors
like the European Union and the United States are largely responses to the work of highly
organized coalitions of the sick and dying who focussed global attention on the pandemic.
The AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) and the Treatment Action Campaign are
two well-known examples. These successes notwithstanding, the depth of the current crisis
remains a stark testament to the failure of institutions across multiple scales to respond
adequately to treat and halt the virus. 

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The Globalization-AIDS-Poverty Syndrome in Africa pp. 235-256