Table of Contents:
Agriculture in early colonial days, early insect infestation outbreaks, land grant colleges, Congressional interest, insecticides—the good and bad, insect losses and entomological cooperation across organizations.
Historical Reporting of Entomological Events
Four major historical documents, commemoration of 100 years of entomology and objectives of this document.
Colonial Entomology, Agriculture, and Insect Pests
Colonists introduced honeybees and initiated sericulture activity.
Search for plants adaptable to the new world. Nuisance insects and recognition of pests of fruit and vegetables. Experimental
gardens were established, and Native Americans taught colonists production methods for indigenous crops.
Agricultural Growth and Federal Exploration
Changing agriculture interest during and after the Revolutionary War. Local publications, newspapers, and colonists’ reports to England. First economic entomology publications in the United States. Support for Smithsonian Institution and United States explorations.
Early American Agricultural Interests
Old world cultivation practices. Interest in improving agriculture by early leaders of the country.
Philosophical societies and improved printing press capability for communicating technology.
Federal Financial Support for Agriculture
American Revolution influences. First United States President and request for agricultural support. First agriculture appropriation to collect agricultural statistics.
U.S. Patent Office and Professional Entomology’s Beginnings at Federal and State Levels
First Federal entomologist. First State entomologists, reports of Thaddeus Harris and William Peck, educational systems, and the first entomology department were barometers of developing
Congressional Actions Affecting Agricultural Development and Science
Agricultural Organic Act, Homestead Act, Morrill Land Grant Act, Experiment Stations, and 7Smith-Lever Act for Agricultural Extension Activity.
United States Department of Agriculture
Formation of the United States Department of Agriculture and the first Commissioner of Agriculture. Original research facilities and the Beltsville, Maryland, Agricultural Research Center.
USDA’s Division of Entomology
Formation of the Division of Entomology, events and personalities shaping the course of Federal entomology. Early entomological publications and their role in technology transfer and scientific
communication. First federal entomologist—diversified duties with little time for research. Recognized need for regulatory actions and inspections of foreign plant impacts. Initiation of
problem solving economic entomology under C.V. Riley and L.O. Howard.
Bureau of Entomology
Restructuring of the Division of Entomology to reflect the expanding scope of Federal entomological concerns and involvement, awareness of exotic pest introductions, program implementation and expansion.
Entomology Research Leadership and Program Direction
Research leadership and program orientation in the Bureau. Program changes, new programs, and expanding responsibility.
Federal Horticultural Board
Plant Quarantine Act of 1912. Need for an organization to administer the Act. The first Federal Horticultural Board Chairman. Exotic pest introduction impact. Initial plant inspection at ports
Beginning of the End of an Era: Establishment of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration
Retirement of L.O. Howard, first separation of entomology research and regulatory functions occurred. Recognition of the increase and importance of exotic pest introductions, quarantine
activities, and regulatory responsibilities. Need for control efforts to cope with new pests.
Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Consolidation of all of the Department’s work on regulatory, disease and pest eradication, and quarantine functions.
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Consolidation of entomological research activities to coordinate and centralize research,regulatory, and action programs to optimize efforts for solving the Nation’s entomological
Agricultural Research Administration
Mobilization of agricultural efforts to meet World War II needs and for increasing agricultural support and demands of a war economy.
BEPQ Organizational Changes and Other Events
New responsibility areas, regional administrative offices, and Insects—Yearbook of Agriculture.
Agricultural Research Service
Department of Agriculture reorganization to avoid duplication of effort and to strengthen coordination of research, production, economic, and marketing functions of the agency. USDA
Agricultural bureaus dissolved. Forest entomology transferred to Forest Service and Stored
Products Entomology transferred to the Agricultural Marketing Service.
Entomology Research Branch—Beginning of a New Era
Discipline-oriented research branch designations with focus on commodities and specific areas of research interest.
Entomology Research Division
Research branches renamed as divisions resulting in new identification of entomology organizational units with minor changes in responsibilities.
Research Accomplishment Highlights
Examples of research accomplishments, and changes in laboratory locations and program orientation in 1963
A Study of Discipline-Commodity-Oriented Entomology Research
Typical discipline-commodity-oriented entomology research 1891 to 1972 with centralized leadership. Program initiations, termination, and relocations responding to needs of national agricultural entomology.
More on Entomology Regulatory Programs
Food and Drugs Act, Insecticide and Fungicide Act, Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act.
Plant Pest Control and Plant Quarantine Divisions of the Crops Regulatory Programs established as a
result of the 1953 USDA reorganization. Separation of research and regulatory work. Research agencies
were to provide needed technology development to support regulatory activities.
Separation of Regulatory Activities From ARS
Plant Pest Control and Plant Quarantine removed from the Agricultural Research Service in 1971 and established as a separate agency. Animal regulatory and protection activities also merged in the new agency.
Reorganization of ARS
Agricultural Research Service reorganization of 1972, decentralization and establishment of a regional-area organization with headquarters support staff and multidiscipline research orientation.
ARS Entomology Research 1972 to 2007
Entomology research in the decentralized non-discipline-oriented organization, leadership and productiveness. Examples of accomplishments.
ARS Leadership in Areawide Pest Management
Formation of USDA areawide working group. First areawide pest management (AWPM) program partnerships. Examples of subsequent AWPM successes.
Current ARS and Federal Entomology Research Organization
National Program Staff, Laboratory and Center Directors, and Research Leaders of ARS in 2004.
Future of Federal Entomology Research
Crop and animal production values. Yield and control costs remain unacceptable. Invasive pests of