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01.Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals using Poplars (Populus spp): A Glimpse of the Plant Responses to Copper, Cadmium and Zinc Stress pp. 387-414
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Looking for Native Hyperaccumulator Species Useful in Phytoremediation pp. 297-330 $100.00
Authors:  (R. Fernández, I. Carballo, H. Nava, R. Sánchez-Tamés, A. Bertrand, A. González, Departamento de Biología Organismos y Sistemas, Oviedo University, Oviedo, Spain)
Human activities and industrial development lead to a deterioration of the environment that affects, to a greater or lesser extent, all countries. In Asturias (Spain), mining, steel mills and the chemical industry have produced wastes with high concentrations of heavy metals, with the consequent risks for the environment and human health. This problem requires an efficient and technologically feasible solution. Phytoremediation is considered an effective, low-cost and environmental friendly technology for cleaning up heavy metal-polluted sites. It is based on the capacity of some plants, called hyperaccumulators, for taking these metals from the soil and accumulating them above a threshold value in their harvestable tissues. One of the strategies that can be followed when working in phytoremediation is the use of native hyperaccumulator plants of high biomass, mainly those adapted to the climatic and soil conditions of the polluted site. According to this, the aim of our work was the identification of plants that spontaneously grow in different heavy metal-polluted soils of our region. After measuring the metal content of these plants, we selected the species according not only to their metal accumulation capacity, but also to the amount of biomass, percentage cover/aggregation, frequency of appearance in polluted areas or having special characteristics that make plants prone to hyperaccumulate metals, such as being nitrophilous or resistant to other types of stress. We tested in the greenhouse the effect of the heavy metals on plant growth and development and their maximum accumulation capacity. Thus, the plants selected were Dittrichia viscosa and Betula celtiberica for Cd, Melilotus alba for Pb, Anthyllis vulneraria for Zn, and Carex pendula for Hg. Later, we selected through in vitro culture the most accumulator plantlets of some of these species for further cloning and use in phytoremediation programs, so we obtained clone DV-A of D. viscosa, clone BC-K of B. celtiberica, and clone MA-X of M. alba. 

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Looking for Native Hyperaccumulator Species Useful in Phytoremediation pp. 297-330