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Livelihood Diversification, De-Agrarianisation and Social Differentiation: Comparative Analysis of Rural Livelihoods from South Africa and Kenya pp. 75-103 $100.00
Authors:  (Miyuki Iiyama, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya)
Abstract:
Livelihood diversification, de-agrarianisation and social differentiation along
differential access to off-farm incomes and non-agrarian assets turn out to be dominant
features of rural poverty in contemporary Africa. They pose methodological challenges
for researchers to conceptualise sociological typologies of rural African populations in
the processes of de-agrarianisation and increasing social differentiation, while the
existent development theories apparently underestimate their considerable implications
on rural development. In response to the increased recognition of these features, the
livelihood study has emerged to lead the focus of rural poverty analysis from an
agriculture-centred, sector-level viewpoint to a household or individual-level viewpoint.
The livelihood study, through synthesising empirical evidence across, should contribute
to facilitating the analysis of social changes from the perspective of households/
individuals and to refining existent development theories and policies.
This study attempts to search for effective criteria to identify typologies of rural
Africans that reflect heterogeneities in livelihood diversification portfolios of farm and
off-farm activities within and between communities, and to apply them to case studies
from South Africa and Kenya. The South African case describes heterogeneous reactions
by rural sub-populations to cope with social transitions (unemployment) and secure rural
livelihoods. The Kenyan case examines heterogeneous reactions by rural sub-populations
to de-agrarianisation over agricultural intensification. 


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Livelihood Diversification, De-Agrarianisation and Social Differentiation: Comparative Analysis of Rural Livelihoods from South Africa and Kenya pp. 75-103