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Principle, Processes and Materials for Nanoimprint Lithography pp. 1-44 $100.00
Authors:  (Hongbo Lan, Yucheng Ding, Hongzhong Liu, State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing System Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, China, and others)
Abstract:
Lithography, the fundamental fabrication process of semiconductor devices, has been
playing a critical role in micro-nanofabrication technologies and manufacturing of Integrated
Circuits (IC). Optical lithography (photolithography) was the first and the earliest
microfabrication technology used in semiconductor IC manufacturing. It is still the main tool
of lithography in today’s VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit) and MEMS. Traditional
optical lithography including contact and project photolithography has contributed
significantly to the semiconductor device advancements. As of 2009 the most advanced form
of photolithography is immersion lithography, in which water is used as an immersion
medium for the final lens. It is being applied to the 45 nm and 32 nm nodes. Several
companies, including IBM, Intel and TSMC, have prepared for the continued use of current
lithography, using double patterning, for the 22 nm and 16 nm nodes, and extending double
patterning beyond 11 nm. However, as the resolution requirement increases for fabrication of
finer and smaller components and devices, the technological dependence on photolithography
becomes a serious problem since the photolithography resolution is restricted by the
diffraction limitation of optics [1, 2]. Currently, maintaining the rapid pace of half-pitch
reduction requires overcoming the challenge of improving and extending the incumbent
optical projection lithography technology while simultaneously developing alternative, next
generation lithography (NGL) technologies to be used when optical projection lithography is
no longer more economical than the alternatives [2]. Candidates for next generation
lithography include: extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUV-lithography), electron beam
lithography (EBL), focused ion beam lithography (FIB), X-ray lithography, maskless
lithography (ML2), interference lithography, and nanoimprint lithography, etc. Among NGL
candidates and emerging nanopatterning techniques, nanoimprint lithography (NIL) has
several important advantages over conventional optical lithography and other NGLs; it is nonoptical
by design, and the resolution appears to be limited only by the resolution of structures
that can be generated in the template or mold. It is neither limited by diffraction nor scattering
effects nor secondary electrons, and does not require any sophisticated radiation chemistry. In
particular, the prominent advantage of NIL compared to other lithography techniques, NGL
and micro/nanomanufacturing technologies, is the prominent ability to create 3-D and largearea
micro/nano structures with low cost and high throughput. In addition, due to the parallel
nature of NIL, it has very high production rate which is well suitable for mass production. It
has been considered as one of the most promising NGLs due to its unique principle and
outstanding advantages. Furthermore, NIL is also one of the most promising low-cost, highthroughput
technologies for manufacturing nanostructures [3,4,5]. 


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Principle, Processes and Materials for Nanoimprint Lithography pp. 1-44