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Local Anodic Oxidation Nanolithography on Silicon: Chemical Routes to Functional Nanostructures pp. 175-193 $0.00
Authors:  (Thomas Baumgaertel, Harald Graaf, Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz, Germany)
The structuring of silicon surfaces in the nanometer regime is one of the demands that have
to be fulfilled in order to advance the design and aspired miniaturisation in semiconductor
technologies. Besides further development of conventional optical lithography techniques
into the ultraviolet regime, alternative lithography techniques are in the focus of recent research
to achieve lateral structures in the nanometer scale. These structuring technologies
are mostly based on direct writing, for example electron beam lithography, imprint lithography
and scanning probe based lithography (SPL). Among the SPL techniques there is
a widespread multitude of different methods for the structuring of various surfaces. The
scope ranges from moving single atoms (via scanning tunnelling microscopy) to the deformation
of soft materials via contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) to drawing structures
with ink (Dip-Pen lithography). Another approach, which has received a broad attention
in the scientific community, is the local anodic oxidation (LAO). Here a voltage is applied
between SPM tip and sample surface which leads to an electrochemical oxidation reaction
under certain environmental conditions (generally the presence of an oxygen-containing
electrolyte). In the case of a silicon sample, the silicon is oxidized locally at the tip apex
leading to the formation of silicon oxide structures. The chemically different oxide can
afterwards be altered through the attachment of molecules or nanoparticles in order to give
the structures a defined functionality. Yet the underlying mechanisms and phenomena are
not fully understood. Systematic chemistry on surfaces and confined geometries is still a
very challenging topic since it is rather difficult to access directly by measurement. This
chapter will introduce the basics of the LAO technique and provide an overview over the research
in that field both regarding the understanding of the process itself as well as possible
applications to generated functionalized structures. 

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Local Anodic Oxidation Nanolithography on Silicon: Chemical Routes to Functional Nanostructures pp. 175-193