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Diamond and Three Dimensional Nanoimprint Lithography pp.245-271 $100.00
Authors:  (Jun Taniguchi, Department of Applied Electronics, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba, Japan)
As silicon ULSI devices continue to be scaled down, resist patterning on Si wafers
becomes increasingly critical. For Si ULSI, reliable lithographic technology must define
features with dimensions below 0.1 μm, and many promising techniques have been developed
that transfer features of less than a quarter micron[1-3]. Next-generation lithographic
techniques must, however, in addition to high resolution, provide high throughput and large
processing latitude at low cost. NIL lithography provides a major breakthrough in
nanopatterning because it produced nanometer features over a large area with high throughput
and low cost [4-6]. NIL fabricates a resist pattern by deforming the resist layer on the
substrate using compression by a nanoscale delineated mold. Because this involves physical
contact between the mold and the resist layer on the substrate surface, breakage and distortion
of mold patterns during contact or peeling in NIL become serious problems in pattern transfer
and productivity. To obtain the high productivity required for mass production, the mold must
be durable in repeated NIL processes and strong in contact with the substrate. Diamond is a
promising candidate for high productivity because of its many excellent properties, such as
large Knoop hardness, large compressive strength, large tensile strength, high thermal
conductivity, and a low thermal expansion coefficient. Table 1.1 shows the mechanical and
thermal properties of diamond, sapphire, and quartz. The high Knoop hardness, compressive
strength, and tensile strength prevent breakage and distortion of the mold. The large thermal
conductivity ensures that heat spreads uniformly. The low thermal expansion coefficient
ensures that the mold shape changes little due to heating. While these properties are suited to
thermal cycle nanoimprint lithography, repeated NIL processes make the mold dirty,
however, making it necessary to clean the mold using strong acid and organic solvent. This
may chemically change the mold surface or compromise it. The diamond mold does not
change or break in cleaning because diamond is hard and chemically inert. Clarification of
diamond mold fabrication and imprint properties using the diamond mold is important for
high productivity. 

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Diamond and Three Dimensional Nanoimprint Lithography pp.245-271