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01.Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals using Poplars (Populus spp): A Glimpse of the Plant Responses to Copper, Cadmium and Zinc Stress pp. 387-414
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Phytoremediation: A Promising Technology of Bioremediation for the Removal of Heavy Metal and Organic Pollutants from the Soil pp. 263-296 $100.00
Authors:  (Sutapa Bose, Vivek Rai, Subarna Bhattacharya, Punarbasu Chaudhuri, A.K. Bhattacharyya, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, New York, and others)
Abstract:
Organic and inorganic pollutants in the soil are one of the major environmental problems of present days. The traditional removal techniques do not provide any acceptable remedies for the removal of metal as well as organic pollutants from the system. Soil amendments are usually a cost effective and environment friendly technology. But disposal of solid wastes on land leads to contamination of both soil and groundwater. Bioremediation is an up coming environmental friendly technology that uses microbes as well as plants to clean up the toxic metals and other pollutants from the soil of the contaminated environment. The use of metal tolerant microbes and plants for the removal of toxic metal from the polluted system is a low cost technology. The specific microbial and plant species use to remove specific contaminants which have discussed in this paper. Metal-accumulating species can concentrate different metals up to 100 to 1000 times in their body which is very much species and site specific. The phytoremediation of heavy metals is divided into four sub-sections: (1) Phytoextraction: the use of plants to remove the toxic metals from the soil into the harvestable parts of plants, (2) phytofiltration: the use of plants root to accumulate the toxic metals from the water system (3) Phytostabilization: the use of metal tolerant plants to remove the bio-available toxic metal from the soil and (4) Phytovolatilazation: the use of plants to take up contaminants from the soil, transforming them into volatile form and transpiring them into the atmosphere. The harvestable parts like root and shoot, which are rich in metals, can easily be reclaimed and recycled after harvesting the plants from the contaminated site. Bioremediation technologies can be generally classified as in situ and ex situ. This paper reviews the mobility, bioavailability and responses of microbes and plants in presence of metals and other pollutants in the system. Bioremediation may be employed to bother specific contaminants such as degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons, heavy metals, oil spills, crude oil, nitrate and sulfate by indigenous or exogenous bacteria as well as plants. In general, bioremediation is a very promising and emerging technology for the removal of different kind of pollutants from the soil and water, which can be, approaching commercialization for near future. 


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Phytoremediation: A Promising Technology of Bioremediation for the Removal of Heavy Metal and Organic Pollutants from the Soil pp. 263-296