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01.Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals using Poplars (Populus spp): A Glimpse of the Plant Responses to Copper, Cadmium and Zinc Stress pp. 387-414
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Use of X-ray fluorescence-based analytical techniques in phytoremediation pp. 331-358 $100.00
Authors:  (Marijan Nečemer, Peter Kump, Katarina Vogel-Mikuš, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, and others)
Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs the use of higher plants to clean-up metal contaminated environments; when applied, there is a need for constant monitoring of metal concentrations in soil, water and biological materials in order to evaluate the success of the applied technology and to control metal uptake in plant tissues in order to prevent accumulation of unwanted toxic metals in food chains. In view of the growing needs of global environmental protection and also to minimize the relevant research costs, it is important that in phytoremediation studies and their application the analytical procedures for determination of elemental concentrations in soil, water and biological materials are accurate, reliable and reproducible, but on the other hand rapid and cheap, with simple sample preparation. Therefore in this chapter the main characteristics, sample preparation protocols, and applications of X-ray fluorescence-based analytical techniques for ―bulk‖ sample analyses, namely energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF), are presented. Although EDXRF and TXRF are far less popular methods for analyses of element concentrations in soil, water, air and biological materials than, for example, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and/or inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), they are much cheaper, simpler and environmentally friendlier, which is particularly advantageous from the economic and environmental protection points of view. 

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Use of X-ray fluorescence-based analytical techniques in phytoremediation pp. 331-358