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01.Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals using Poplars (Populus spp): A Glimpse of the Plant Responses to Copper, Cadmium and Zinc Stress pp. 387-414
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Phytoremediation using Constructed Mangrove Wetlands: Mechanisms and Application Potential pp. 415-442 $100.00
Authors:  (Lin Ke, Nora F. Y. Tam, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China, and others)
Abstract:
Phytoremediation is the ―use of green plants and their associated microbiota, soil amendments, and agronomic techniques to remove, contain, or render harmless environmental contaminants‖. It is an emerging technology which offers a potentially cost-effective and environmentally sound alternative to the environmentally destructive physical methods which are currently practiced for the cleanup of contaminated groundwater, terrestrial soils, sediments, and sludge. In some definitions, phytoremediation is suggested to exclude constructed wetland treatment technology, as the former is the ―use of living green plants for in situ risk reduction of contaminated soil, sludge, sediment, and ground water through contaminant removal, degradation, or containment‖), in which the scope of phytoremediation is strictly limited to in situ clean up areas that have been contaminated by past use; in contrast, the latter is the involvement of living plants for ex situ cleanup of a steady flow of wastewater. In a broader sense however, wetland treatment technology also falls under phytoremediation, since both technologies take advantage of primary producers (i.e., photosynthetic plants or other autotrophic organisms in either terrestrial or aquatic forms) to clean up and manage hazardous and non-hazardous contaminants, regardless of the fashion (i.e., in situ or ex situ) of application . Actually, the first documented plant-based system installed in Germany over 300 years ago was designed to remove contaminants from municipal wastewater. Since then, common designs such as reed-bed filters, natural and constructed wetlands and floating plant treatment systems have been actively developed; these designs were primarily intended for purifying municipal sewage. In the past two decades, the initial concept of using plants in wastewater treatment has been expanded to remediate contaminated shallow groundwater, air, soil, and more recently, sediment and sludge . Within the current context, the broader scope of phytoremediation, which includes constructed wetlands treatment technology will be adopted. 


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Phytoremediation using Constructed Mangrove Wetlands: Mechanisms and Application Potential pp. 415-442