Arsenic in the Environment: Phytoremediation Using Aquatic Macrophytes pp. 573-590
Authors: (M. Azizur Rahman, M. Mahfuzur Rahman, Ismail M. M. Rahman, H. Hasegawa, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Japan, and others)
Abstract: A large number of sites worldwide are contaminated by arsenic (As) as a result of human activities as well as from natural sources. Arsenic is a vital environmental and health concern due to its known chronic and epidemic toxicity. The main arsenic exposures to humans are through water pathway and food contamination originates from natural processes. Many of the available remediation technologies lost economic favor and public acceptance because of some unavoidable limitations of those technologies. Therefore, phytoremediation, a plant-based green technology, becomes an emerging and alternative technology that aims to extract or inactivate As in the environment. However, two approaches have been proposed in literature for the phytoremediation of arsenic: continuous or natural phytoremediation, and chemically enhanced phytoremediation. The first one is based on the use of natural hyperaccumulator plants having the ability to accumulate very high concentration of As in their shoots with exceptionally higher tolerance to As toxicity. On the other hand, As uptake in high biomass crop plants is increased using some chelating ligands in chemically enhanced phytoremediation technology.