Application of Phytoremediation from Experimental Stage to Practical Stage: Comparative Study in the Southern Part and the Northern Part of the European Region pp. 613-630
Authors: (Ryunosuke Kikuchi, Tamara T. Gorbacheva, Romeu Gerardo, ESAC – Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Bencanta, Coimbra, Portugal, and others)
Abstract: Phytoremediation is the use of plants to remove contaminants from the environment or render them harmless. Current engineering-based technologies to clean up soils are costly, and most considerations usually state that soil phytoremediation will be cheaper than alternatives such as soil washing. However, phytoremediation is a comparatively new field and not all of its applications are well understood. Most metal-contaminated soils contain more than one metal. For example, combinations of Pb and Zn are common in urban soils, while Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu are all often present in the vicinity of a metallurgic smelter. There will be minimal economic value in a technology that can efficiently remove one metal from a soil but leave most of another behind. However, most of the experiments on phytoremediation only address a single metal contaminant. Two field surveys were carried out in order to understand the multiple-metal effect on phytoremediation.