The Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Phytostabilization and Phytoextraction of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils pp. 751-762
Authors: (Mehdi Zarei, Jamal Sheikhi, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, University of Shiraz, Shiraz, Iran)
Abstract: Of the various physico-chemical and biological technologies that have been used for remediation of heavy metals (HMs) contaminated soils, all methods are expensive and totally destroy physical, chemical and biological properties of treated soils, reduce yield of plant growth and disrupt ecosystems. Therefore, it is best to develop suitable, natural, cheaper and in situ technologies to recover degraded land. Phytoremediation is an alternative to physico-chemical methods and is emerging as a promising environmentally friendly method for detoxification and /or deactivation and removal of elements from polluted soils. It is possible to improve the capabilities of plants in different types of phytoremediation processes by inoculating with appropriate soil microorganisms especially arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Some AMF species occur naturally and form a symbiosis with plant roots in the HMs polluted soils. In some cases, AMF have generally such a strong influence on plant biomass and can increase HMs uptake and root-to shoot transport (phytoextraction), while in other cases AMF contribute to HMs stabilization within the soil/root and reduce their uptake (phytostabilization). In this chapter, some knowledge concerning the role of AMF in phytoextraction and phytostabilization of HMs contaminated soil was summarized and discussed.